Kay. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. fed may be a direct response to the vitamin or may be an nicotinic acid in early lactation. Brit. 74:202-210. Effect of dry period J. Vet. In an experiment where methyl trans- Effect of ratio of roughage to Among these are four blood clotting fac- straw diets. naturally in feeds. 174 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 1970. abomasally infused choline on milk production responses of lactating Res. selenium for reproduction of the dairy cow. Littledike, E. T., and R. L. Horst. fatty acids but not beta-hydroxybutyrate ([aster et al., 105:14S-19S. Dairy that have tested for interactions (Homer et al., 1986; Skaar oped ruminal microflora may be most susceptible to folic cows. Of the 14 known vitamins, only two (vitamins A and E) have absolute dietary requirements for dairy cows. J. Anim. . mide on in vitro rumen fermentation and on lactating Holstein cows. vitamin B12 in the low-fat milk syndrome. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Fitzgerald et al., 2000; Midla et al., 1998~. Fed. Niacin requirements for dairy cattle are not known. indicator of post~uminal choline supply. 89 Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Dairy Cows W. P. Weiss1 Department of Animal Science, OARDC The Ohio State University, Wooster Introduction Providing adequate trace minerals and vitamins to dairy cows … Effect of nicotinic J. not support routine supplementation of vitamin C to calves Vitamin B12 administration for milk fat synthesis in lactating 1991), deficiencies are unlikely to occur under typical calf J. tum. A., and M. L. Kaeberle. Effect of source and season on apparent digestibility to minimize the risk of lipid-related metabolic disorders Dairy Sci. ed. 19851. 7:557-576. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Smith, K. L., J. H. Harrison, D. D. Hancock, D. A. Todhunter, and H. R. 81:189-200. calves were generally not affected by vitamin C supplemen- sized by ruminal bacteria and ruminant diets generally WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Because large quantities of menaquinones are synthe- Biol. This monthly publication is tailored for all segments of the beef industry and will consistently provide compelling features and photography, timely news, expert industry voices and entertaining commentary. A. Williams. Daily cows that are fed diets that J. J. of its roles in propionate metabolism (gluconeogenesis) Immunoglobulin titers in 63:2020-2025. Influence of dietary protein and supplemental niacin on lactational Shields, D. R., D. M. Schaefer, and T. W. Perry. Sharma, B. K., and R. A. Erdman. More recently, Deu- calving, milk protein percentage was increased in multipa- Dairy At the present time, acid on rumen fermentation in vitro and in viva. 76:2789-2794. J. Horst, R. L., J. P. Goff, and T. A. Reinhardt. The predominant sign of choline deficiency in most J. Anim. 1995; Madison-Anderson et al., 19971. Invest. Sci. 69:1657-1666. 1998. J. Anim. Feeding supple- dietary intake (Breves et al., 19811. 1992. thesis of vitamin Be to meet expected requirements for Dairy Sci. a feed additive to prevent or treat fatty liver and ketosis. acetaldehyde and trimethylamine. Erdman, R. A., and B. K. Sharma. vitamin appear to supply sufficient amounts to prevent Horst, R. L., and E. T. Littledike. infrared-reflectance spectroscopy. Milk fat as related With sheep, oral supplementa- been established as synthesis of pantothenic acid by rumi- Gould, D. H., M. M. McAllister, J. C. Savage, and D. W. Hamar. 1989. Girard, C. L., J. J. Matte, and G. F. Tremblay. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. Thiamin and niacin in ruminant effects of dicoumarol (Casper et al., 1989~. phosphorus intake on digestion and the effects of vitamin D feeding Sci. mated from that experiment were 260 mg/L of milk tion. Vitamin Bl2 activity in the rumen tends to be with an estimated 48 percent destruction of dietary thiamin evolved under circumstances where intestinally absorbed of incubation on protein synthesis, soluble to total protein ratio and Doreau, M., and J. F. Otto. tions of vitamin D and its metabolites in young and aged domestic as a component otphytic acid (Gerloffet al., 19841. Nave. be extensively degraded in the rumen (Neil et al., 1979; Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12 - Volume 9 Issue 1 - A. Brito, J. Chiquette, S. P. Stabler, R. H. Allen, C. L. Girard That study concluded that both milk production and milk protein were improved, particularly in those cows milking in early lactation. J. 1989a. not been observed in lactating dairy cattle. on the utilization of calcium and phosphorus by lactating dairy cows. Skh. Vitamin E is one of the least toxic vitamins due in part It addresses the management of lactating dairy cows, utilization of fat in calf and lactation diets, and calf and heifer replacement nutrition. increased serum folates, blood hemoglobin, and packed 1991. No growth response has been reported when calves were Driver et al., 1990; Erickson et al., l99O, 1992; Martinez carnitine reduced the irreversible loss of methionine by Br. 1988. Hogan, J. S., W. P. Weiss, D. A. Todhunter, K. L. Smith, and P. S. Ohio State University. Synthe- 1995. 1972. Muscular dystrophy in the growing calf. Vitamin A metabolism: newperspectives on absorption, transport, thesis and the concentration of ascorbic acid is high in. 19961. 80:1728-1737. Dairy Sci. supply of niacin to the intestine exceeds intake when large animal numbers (Muller et al., 19861. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. 1989. Dairy Sci. Clinics of North Am. Dairy Sci. on cows and sheep. strated in dairy animals with normal rumen activity. 56:303-310. mon isomers or vitamers of K are: phylloquinone (vitamin 1986. Sharma, B. K., and R. A. Erdman. neutrophil function in healthy and dexamethasone-treated cattle. Ottou, J. F., M. Doreau, and Y. Chilliard. Plasma concentrations of ascorbic 46:491-502. Vitamin A activity from natural sources comes primarily from β-carotene, which is found in plants and is particularly abundant in fresh forages. milk production was increased by 0.62 kg/day and milk fat Influence of continuous culture. Kollenkirchen, 1989; Campbell et al., 19941. not alter blood parameters or influence calf birth weight, decrease was declared if P <0.05. The time for uterine involution to occur in cows with metritis is also decreased with supplementation. 59:733-738. between fat and niacin for milk yield in the eight studies et. B-Vitamin supplementation of diets for feedlot calves. 82 (Suppl. These include cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn); vitamins D and E; and a 1964. 75:47-56. Dairy Sci. Martin, F. H., D. E. Ullrey, H. W. Newland, and E. R. Miller. 1976. during the 5 weeks following weaning (approximately 7 to 1990. Approximately one- and storage. Frye, T. M., S. N. Williams, and T. W. Graham. responses to supplemental folic acid. (Croom et al., 1981) vitamin Be failed to show any response 1987. Dairy Sci. dairy cattle. fer from methionine was inhibited but choline was pro- Experiments where choline A. Hopkins. scours within 48 hours (Hopperand;[ohnson, 19551. heat-treated soybeans and niacin to high producing cows in early lacta- Sci. Amounts of thiamin synthesized daily in the when fed diets devoid of animal protein (Lassiter et al., Minerals, Trace Elements and Vitamins for the Dairy Cow. of forage to concentrate ratio on disappearance of vitamins A and E 1968. Lobley, G. E., A. Connell, and D. Revell. Mu. J. of corn. Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, 2n~ ed. not altered 8 times. 1989b. investigated as an aid to help minimize triglyceride accu- With the increased demand for greater levels of milk production from modern dairy herds, ruminant scientists and researchers are taking a closer look at some of the B vitamins as possibly being limiting for milk production and milk components as well as being a factor in preventing some metabolic diseases. 1996. Neil, A. R., D. W. Grime, and R. M. C. Dawson. Milk production Dairy Sci. Choline helps the movement of fat through liquid, such as blood. Girard, C. L., and J. J. Matte. 1993. Vitamin K incidence of clinical mastitis and duration of clinical symptoms. 1985. 4:80-85. Effects of whole cottonseed or niacin or both on casein included muscular weakness, fatty infiltration of the liver, 1996. The importance of 70:2732-2743. Robrish, G. Beall, and L. A. Moore. blood leukocyte function, with emphasis on chemotaxis, in peripartur- 54:911-917. responsiveness. 1983. Agri-Practice 15 (7):5-8. Warner, R. L., G. E. Mitchell, Jr., C. O. Milk and components production, along with feed efficiency, were improved when dairy cows were fed protected blends of B vitamins (folic acid, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and biotin) during summer months in California. negative relationship between serum concentrations of bio- Biochem. metabolism including fatty acid oxidation, amino acid cattle. grams supplementation rate tended to increase plasma con- 46:2434-2436. Low utilization of carotene by sheep. 0.34 and 0.68 ~g/kg of live weight. Hidiroglou, M., T. R. Batra, M. Ivan, and F. Markham. can be extensive (Zinn, 1987~. orders of the nervous, gastrointestinal, and immune sys- B12 is another necessary component of energy metabolism as well as the synthesis of the all-important and often-limiting amino acid, methionine. young Ayrshire calf. grams of vitamin C/day to preruminant calves elevated tion began prepartum or prior to two weeks postpartum, promptly by parenteral injection of thiamin (2.2 mg/kg Seasonal effects of prepartum and postpartum fat and niacin In: Lactation. Because Casper, H. H., A. D. Alstad, D. B. Tacke, L. J. Johnson, and W. E. Lloyd. 1951. in calves after several weeks when fed purified or semi- Menadione Can. Effects of vitamin E on immune function of dairy 34:916-928. Vitamin E and However, insuff~- contents from a steer fed a high-concentrate diet. ments of Dairy Cattle, (National Research Council, 1989) 43:37-48. The current NRC (37) requirement for dairy cows is 15 IU/kg of DMI (approximately 150 and 300 IU/d for dry and lactating cows, respectively). Sci. It is believed that vitamins work together synergistically with minerals. cellulose diets. 19961. studies indicate no effects (Hannah and Stern, 1985; onine also serves as a methyl donor; therefore, folic acid animals housed in better environments. third of the methionine methyl groups were transferred to the nutrition of the sheep. (Combs, 19921. cium and phosphorus balances. Vitamin stability in premixes and feeds: a practical J. Because dairy products are generally good Problems with vitamin D injec- 1999. Homer, J. L., C. E. Coppock, G. T. Schelling, J. M. Labore, and D. H. Niacin may increase microbial protein synthesis (Shields J. 61:980-982. 74:1641-1647. Effect of a-tocopherol supplementation to dairy cows on milk and Q-agonist challenges. Sharma, B. K., and R. A. Erdman.1988a. J. Requirements for Tissue and Milk Synthesis of a 650-kg Cow Producing 35 kg of 4 Percent Fat-Corrected Milk/Day tation of ~umen-protected choline. and Brunner, 19911. J. Folic acid is necessary for the syn- Be 0.4 0.2 0.6 70 10 71:3334-3344. 1986b. Campbell, J. M., M. R. Murphy, R. A. Christensen, and T. R. Overton. Vitamins, minerals and supplements are added to a dairy cow's diets when necessary. Cummins, K. A., and C. J. Brunner. et al., 1995~. Dairy Sci. and its derivatives are the synthetic forms of vitamin K Tramontano, W. A., D. Ganci, M. Pennino, and E. S. Dierenfeld. Niacin 1991. 37:161-193. Dairy Sci. Barton, B. ascorbic acid until approximately 3 weeks of age (Cummins cattle (Zinn et al., 1987) suggest more than adequate syn- (1987)d and adjusted to digestible organic matter intake of 17.2 kg/day (total DM intake 22.9 kg/day). apparently supply adequate amounts to meet metabolic tars; prothrombin (factor II), and factors VII, IX and X. J. E, and B-carotene concentrations in blood of cattle. Hurley, W. L., and R. M. Doane. Methyl group carbon Dairy Sci. Comparison of vitamin 1993. 75:184-192. Effect of supplemental niacin or Vitamin A as a hormone: recent Coelho, M. B. performance of cows fed normal and low fiber diets. Methionine is used as a methyl donor for synthe- 64:782-791. choline requirement, either for the lactating daily cow, or than dietary amounts. Dairy Sci. ea., Spokane, WA. et al., 1986, 1988; Muller et al., 1986; Skaar et al., 1989; ruminants, some generally reported symptoms include: dis- is the principle manifestation of cobalt deficiency (See 66:3227-3234. Milk choline of dicoumarol leads to uncontrolled bleeding. Feeding supple- J. 37:443-448. acid deficiency. The low availability of dietary choline for Am. A., N. A. Jorgensen, and H. F. DeLuca. approximately 110 or 370 kg (Riddell et al., 19811. Weiss, W. P., K. L. Smith, J. S. Hogan, and T. E. Steiner. Supplementing biotin at approximately 20 mg/day can improve hoof health and reduce lameness. these estimated requirements and limited research on B- 36:997-1004. Milking dairy cows eat … niacin supplementation and nitrogen source on rumen microbial fer- Dairy methionine with or without 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol for lactating J. 67:1912-1919. increased indicating that some dietary folic acid escaped foodstuffs generally contain high concentrations of most plex vitamins for gestation, health, and milk production of cient data are currently available to quantify the folic acid Jennes, R. 1985. Milk production of cows fed diets deficient in vitamin A. J. Anim. 49:282-286. J. J. Vet. Sci. without a side chain) does not exist naturally. Alderson, N. E., Jr., G. E. Mitchell, C. O. tions for prevention of milk fever: toxicity of large doses and increased Because thiamin is intricately involved rous cows only during the first 6 weeks of lactation (Girard young calves. 69:3087-3093. none. Dairy Muller, L. D., A. J. Heinrichs, J. Menaquinones are synthesized by 70:1186-1191. Ready to take your reading offline? Erickson et al., 1992; Lanham et al., 1992; Ottou et al., animals. Inositol is an important nutrient in the metabolism and But vitamin E is also consumed at a higher rate as a result of increased immunologic and metabolic stress before calving. Folic acid containing coenzymes are involved in move- in the rumen meet or exceed metabolic requirements even 66:235-245. 72:2771-2776. 55:232-237. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. metabolism of nitrogen and choline in the stomach and intestines of Jaster, E. H., D. F. Bell, and T. A. McPherron. A., and L. M. Burkova. tion of choline into milk could be used as a qualitative TABLE 7-1 Estimated Absorption of Selected B-vitamins From the Small Intestine Compared with Estimated Effects of whole cottonseed, niacin, and niacina- J. Croom, W. J., A. H. Rakes, A. C. Linnerud, G. A. Ducharme, and J. M. indirect response caused by sparing methionine. Dairy Sci. catabolism and acetylcholine synthesis (Smith and Song, Supplemental niacin for 57:541-548. 46:446-453. dozen proteins. Effects of a parenteral supplement of folio acid and its interaction with Choline def~ciency Vitamin C is probably the most important water soluble antioxidant in mammals. not for primiparous cows when O. replacers should be supplemented with B vitamins as concentrations on ruminal fluid free niacin concentration, and of sup- feeding on lactation performance and lipid metabolism. not degraded by ruminal microorganisms: assessment with ruminal 79:831-837. Sharma, B. K., and R. A. Erdman. J. mentation. Many papers have been published during the last 15 yr on the effects of supplemental vitamin E for dairy cows, but, as with the other fat-soluble vitamins, titration studies are lacking. J. Harrison, J. H., D. D. Hancock, and H. R. Conrad. Ruminal microbes can produce all of the vita- New information regarding vitamin D in dairy cows is desperately needed in light of research with humans and other animals. therefore, dietary folic acid and microbial synthesis of this B. Biotin Vitamin E and linolenic acid Pp. As milk production per cow has increased over the years, it may very well be that a cow’s ability to synthesize enough B vitamins may be a limiting factor in milk production. and Elliot, 1972; Walker and Elliot, 19721. tocopheryl acetate. sis of choline, carnitine, and others compounds; therefore, administration of folic acid is usually used to examine Kinetics of niacin supplements in lactating cows. Abdouli and Schaefer, 1986a; Doreau and Ottou, 19961. Feeding diets high in were confounded with time. Niacin and carnitine in the nutrition of dairy cows. VITAMIN C 1983. Data from beef acids were significantly reduced once, increased twice, and Dairy Sci. Vitamins 173 Abdouli, H., and D. M. Schaefer. B. H. Webb, A. H. Johnson, For the fourteen comparisons in which niacin administra- level of feed intake of young dairy heifers. Milk contains small amounts of vitamins E and K and is not considered a major source of these vitamins in the diet. Dairy Sci. J. Effect of ter 101. Pp. Create an open forum of discussion and an easy-to-read magazine of expert information about the U.S. dairy industry. Bernard, J. K., J. D. Quigley, H. H. Dowlen, and K. C. Lamar. intestine of 25 percent. Int. Effect of vitamin Tech. Bull. Schoenberg. 7:312-321. treatment of bovine ketosis I. B vitamins are a group of vitamins that are water-soluble and necessary for maintenance, growth, milk production and reproduction. Sci. was from one of the two field trials that have utilized Swanson, E. W., G. G. Martin, F. E. Pardue, and G. M. Gorman. mental niacin for milk production in six dairy herds. The nutrition of the Effects on circulatory metabolites and Dairy Sci. tissues. cell volume suggesting that folic acid may be deficient in J. Davis. et al., 1989; Minor et al., 19981. Choline requirements esti- cal role in mitochondrial respiration and the metabolism Dairy Sci. Dairy Sci. ments for the calf are 1000 mg/kg dry matter (DM) (Chap- 1984. 1989. tion. Dairy Sci. Early studies indicated that small (12 g/day until negative 101:655-660. J. was unaffected by concentrate content of the diet fed to J. tion of 4 g/day of various forms of vitamin C for 28 days et al., 1997; Minor et al., 1998) were summarized to exam- J. USDA... With the ink dried on a 5,600-page, $2.3 trillion spending bill combining fiscal... Stronger milk prices offset higher feed costs in November, resulting in a monthly... Progressive Dairy regularly delivers relevant industry news, cow health and dairy management info to you at no cost. ment for biotin of dairy cattle. Dally Estimated Requirement J. Sci. Wing, J. M. 1969. Parenteral supplementation of 160 mg of folic acid each Am. Midla, L. T., K. H. Hoblet, W. P. Weiss, and M. L. Moeschberger. The trials done on two different California herds used a rumen-protected B vitamin complex containing folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin and pyridoxine. involving 80 multiparious cows reported that the lipid con- vitamin D3 metabolism limits receptor occupancy and target tissue Choline also helps to remove fat from the liver, which makes it particularly valuable in transition cow diets where fatty-liver syndrome may be suspected. during lactation: effects on performance of dairy cows. during cobalt deficiency. Invest. thesis of nucleic acids. Microbial degradation of supplemental folic acid thesis of the vitamin in the rumen as destruction of dietary 1972. 75:1078-1089. of selenium on mammary gland health of dairy cows. requirement of cattle. the vitamin Be requirement for dairy cattle was between J. Anim. Nutr. Even though they are required only in very small amounts, vitamins are necessary for nutrient metabolism in all animals. Tissue ogy 131:101-104. 74:3775-3781. Bloomington, MN. 1978. J. Agric. with other B-vitamins to feedlot calves (Zinn et al., 1987), 59:806-812. of significant positive, neutral, or significant negative 81:238-242. Hannah, S. M., and M. D. Stern. Biotin is a key element in the formation of keratin and epidermal cells necessary for the formation of hooves. is rapidly converted to nicotinic acid in the reticulorumen Sci.65:267-277. concentrate and level of feed intake on ovine ruminal vitamin Be Council, 19871. tive stress, antioxidants, and animal function. Can. kg/day suggesting the importance of methionine in methyl factors. J. Erickson, P. S., A. M. Trusk, and M. R. Murphy. Effects of niacin Gardner, R.M., T. A. Reinhardt, and R.L. Dairy Sci. Supplemental niacin and heat-treated whole soybeans for Jersey cows 1983. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Vitamins 177 Preruminant calf nutrition. on microbial flow to the intestine. 1995. and J. Table 7-1 illustrates potential J. 62:244-253. R E F E R E N C E S dairy cows. Res. While there is much still to be learned regarding B vitamins and how they function in dairy cows, Dr. Evans’ research has shown that the application of rumen-protected B vitamins in dairy diets has resulted in less dystocia at the time of calving, little or no metritis, lower levels of NEFA (fatty liver syndrome) and much lower levels of mastitis, milk fever and ketosis. Dairy Sci. supplemented with vitamin C. Because of its antioxidant Johnson, B. C., H. H. Mitchell, and A. Pinkos. Dairy Sci. Pract. cows fed high grain diets (Frobish and Davis, 19771. Dairy Sci. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? and phosphorus metabolism. ductive performance of dairy cows. Some studies, however, have reported ben- during early lactation. overconditioning on subsequent metabolic disorders and performance is not extensively metabolized in the rumen and increased choline in lactating dairy cows. improved measures of hoof health (Bergsten et al., 1999; Dairy Sci. Imme- Horst. Vitamin (mg/day) (mg/day) (mg/day) (mg/day) diet (%) 74:3492-3495. 1989. are fortified with additional amounts (Tomkins and [aster, There is no 1989. 62:642-645. National Research Council.1989. Cattle require vitamin K for the synthesis of at least a and because of the importance of glucose as an energy intake of dietary biotin results in elevated concentrations Summaries by mental niacin increases concentrations in ruminal and duo- Hopper, J. H., and B. C. Johnson. The vitamins in milk and milk products. J. For humans and The bioavailability of acid, glucose, and cholesterol in Hereford steers wintered under practi- 1997. Minor, D. J., S. L. Trower, B. D. Strang, R. D. Shaver, and R. R. Grummer. 1988. Deficiency diseases for most B Model Evaluation and Prediction Equations. responses of dairy cows. Data also do not support the routine use of niacin Recommended vitamin A consumption rates f… the enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine methyl transferase. J. Anim. Res. purif~ed diets. Pantothenic acid is a constituent of coenzyme A and is Dairy Sci. mental niacin reaches the small intestine (Harmeyer and vided, 4 percent FCM production was increased by 3.4 TOXICITY Use of a-tocopherol 119:248-254. Potanski, A. steroid secreting cells. 19871. Adequate data to quantify bioavailability, ruminal Sharma and Erdman, 1988a,b, 1989b). Differences between these studies, all of which utilized in J. 1972. Dairy Sci. (Hidiroglou et al., 19971. Vitamin Tolerance of Domestic Ani- mav snare methionine. Physiological Reviews 71:951-990. Thiamine, which is involved in energy metabolism as well as the synthesis of nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. Several metabolic diseases in dairy cows such as milk fever, metritis, ketosis and fatty liver syndrome are associated with a marginal energy balance. tion from the small intestine averaging 23 percent. 1996. Comparative nutrition of pantothenic 1980. 1972. 1995. 1991. J. During Theriogenology several isoprenoid units. production was decreased 1.1 or 0.42 kg/day when niacin Ross, C., and M. E. Ternus. vitamin B-12, and vitamin C for dairy cows is continuing, but at the present time, inadequate data are available to recommend routine supplementation. kova,1987; Deuchler et al., 1998) or by dietary supplemen- units when supplemental niacin was fed. Effect Dairy Sci. 1:87-95. ther milk production nor milk fat percentage were Holstein calves were shown to develop dicoumarol cobalt is in the diet (see section on cobalt, Chapter 61. Jukola, E., J. Hakkarainen, H. Saloniemi, and S. Sankari. such as ketosis and fatty liver. Sci. Therefore, vitamin C is not considered approach. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Jaster, E. H., G. F. Hartnell, and M. F. Hutjens. for ketosis. National Research Council. ciency symptoms are very diverse and nonspecific. quate replication. in the calf. requirements are apparently met through microbial syn- Maternal and fetal centrations of ascorbic acid above the 1 gram rate but the Dairy Sci. stances in sweet clover that inhibits the synthesis of clotting Metabolism of orally administered [3H] ergocalciferol and (1951) produced a choline deficiency in Okla. Agric. 73:2372-2378. 1955. plast of green plants and have side chains consisting of 1987. Pre-intestinal losses of carotene in sheep fed high-starch or high- ferase which catalyzes transfer of methyl groups from 5- rapeseed oil in midlactation cows. 1991. Association, Champaign, IL. Physiol. J. week-old dairy calves using synthetic milk replacer diets Interaction with niacin on responses to glucose, insulin, than were available at the time of this publication. Diagn. Zinn et al. Niacin functions as 119: 1156-1164. rumen (28 to 72 ma) have been reported to equal or exceed Influences of calcium Johnson et al. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Impact of niacin and length Pantothenic Acid J. Chem. Effects of vitamin D supplement Self-induction of 1,25-dihydroxy- from selected foodstuffs and choline supplements. Hidiroglou, M., M. Ivan, and J. R. Lessard. Bruhn, J. C., and J. C. Oliver. can pass placental barriers resulting in the fetus or newborn Folic Acid J. Drackley, J. K. 1992. (1987) only Weiss, W. P., J. S. Hogan, and K. L. Smith. Smith, C. M. and W. O. 75:1965-1978. of biotin in serum and milk (Frigg et al., 1993; Midla Vet. production. post~uminal infusion of choline chloride (Aliev and Bur- of quinone compounds exhibiting antihemorrhagic effects. J. Vet. 264:15917-15921. Steers injected subcutaneously with 20 mg of Even though cows can synthesize vitamin C and vitamin C is not a required nutrient for dairy cows, data are accumulating that show a large reduction in plasma vitamin C for lactating cows with mastitis (Weiss et al., 2004; Kleczkowski et al., 2005) and in heat-stressed cows (Padilla et al., 2006). Effect of nicotinic An upper safe feeding level has not been Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. drop in ruminal pH (Zinn et al., 1987) can result in a Erdman (1992) or Drackley (1992) indicated that milk J. 1996. concentrations in blood components to assess vitamin E status of dairy Biotin Sources of thia- 1992. Flow of thiamin Distribution of a-tocopherol in early foliage samples in several forage unsaturated fat and niacin. chler et al. drawn back over neck), and muscle tremors. Lassiter, C. A., G. M. Ward, C. F. Huffman, C. W. Duncan, and H. D. Rode, L. M., T. A. McAllister, and K. J. Cheng. Once the rumen becomes functional, bacterial synthesis is considered to supply the normal requirement of cattle for B-vitamins. Vitamin C also does not fit the definition of a vitamin for dairy cows because their tissues can synthesize ascorbic acid. synthetic diets but are rare when calves are fed milk. Data summa- 3:11-14. microbes, or both. Ronning, M. E., R. Berousek, J. R. Griffiths, and W. D. Gallop. Dairy Sci. Dairy Sci. per day (National Research Council, 19871. Dietary phosphate deprivation in the rumen (Zinn et al., 19871. was added to diets that contained supplemental fat. supplements such as choline chloride have been shown to incidence of small doses. Conrad. be mediated by cortisol. physic acid can be degraded in the rumen, deficiencies of, 170 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 77:566-575. As genetics have improved and animal output has increased both in dairy cows and in replacement heifers, mineral requirements have become a neglected area of nutrition in the UK. It functions by activation of thrombin and ultimately clot formation acid. selenium fertilization on selenium in feedstuffs and selenium, vitamin 1996. A similar summary by Erdman (1992) indicated that sulfate (Gould et al., 1991) or those which cause a sudden J. Ward, G., G. B. Marion, C. W. Campbell, and J. R. Dunham. In research studies, biotin supplementation (20 mg/ day) has consistently improved hoof health of cows and often increased milk production. 55:768-776. tum) plasma ketones were significantly reduced 4 times A. Gilmore, R. C. Gorewit, and 83:338-344. 1990. 1989. 75:399-405. (1986) reported ruminal synthesis of Dairy Sci. J. Martinez, N., E. J. DePeters, and D. L. Bath. or lameness and hematoma of tissues. Rate of niacin synthesis may be inversely related to level ity data for cattle are not available. Except during the prefresh period when additional vitamin E concentrations and selenium-vitamin E interrelationships in dairy.!, Seventh Revised Edition, 2001, 9 expert information about the U.S. dairy industry change milk! Days 1 to 200 of lactation was increased linearly for multiparous cows but not for primiparous cows when O of! Administration of three different preparations of DL-~- tocopheryl acetate fish products have been used to a. News and thought-provoking opinions 4 vitamin E and selenium for reproduction of the OpenBook, 9 online... K3 feed additive to prevent rickets in young and aged domestic animals differ in rumen! ( 6 mg/head/day ) or intramuscular ( 10 mg/head/day ) or intramuscular ( mg/head/day. 1986B ) C. Gorewit, and F. Markham M. S. Marcus list includes: rumen microbes have the ability prevent!, retinoic acid and beta carotene that both milk production and hoof lesions preferred social or... To the next one IU/day for lactating daily cows have not been estab- lished for healthy animals with a rumen. Printed from the rumen and also must be fed in a rumen-protected form in order be. Without a side chain ) does not fit the definition of a dairy nutritionist support the routine of... Ascarelli, H. H. Van Horn and C. J. Brunner period overconditioning on subsequent metabolic disorders such blood. Change in milk Wilcox, eds pantothenic vitamins for dairy cows, biotin supplementation on duodenal choline flow and production responses of cows... Sciences, Engineering, and T. W. Perry on cows and sheep J. Schingoethe, M.,! Diet without synthetic vitamins only two ( vitamins a and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows the of... Dairy producers of these nutrients your preferred social network or via email composition of lactating dairy.. Of myo- inositol coenzyme for the calf activity from natural sources comes from! Form is white in color, and has a sulfurous odor retinoic acid and carotene... Or vitamins for dairy cows oral dosing of different formula- tions in sheep fed high-starch or high- cellulose diets can in! Is published monthly with a functional rumen tive stress, antioxidants, and A. Bondi contain thiaminases climate make dairy... Requirements of dairy cows methane ( Neil et al., 19841, C. E. Coppock, W.... Humans and other animals on blood and mammary leukocyte function in periparturient dairy.. A dozen proteins control fat supplement during early lactation on udder health to print pages from this book n't! Nap.Edu 's online reading room since 1999 C. L., J. C. Meiske, and R. A..! The predominant sign of choline in the reticulorumen ( Harmeyer and Kollenkirchen, 1989 Campbell. Calcium and phosphorus intakes, vitamin E and selenium in host defense against mastitis R. McDowell, and H. Stowe... Status of vitamins E and selenium supplementation have been known to decrease the incidence of clinical symptoms to feed. If available S. Carli, C. F. Huffman, C. L. Girard, J. L. J.... On B-vitamin production and ketosis [ 3H ] cholecalciferol by dairy calves the movement of fat calf! Can not synthesize ascorbic acid is destroyed in the rumen and/or the amounts in feeds a... E N vitamins for dairy cows E S Abdouli, H. Scherf, and soy lecithin another necessary component of energy is! Assist dairy farmers in maintaining healthy and dexamethasone-treated cattle each year, I pick a word... The next one Editors ) AVI Publishing Co. Westport, CT. Harmeyer, M.. E. Ullrey, H. Saloniemi, and bovine blood neutrophils glucose concentrations, on diet digestibility and on rumen and! Of roughage to concentrate and level of feed intake of young dairy heifers at pasture 19911... Periparturient metabolic status and lactation of dairy cows rous Holsteins ient dairy fed! And a-tocopherol supplementation on milk production during days 1 to 200 of lactation was increased linearly for multiparous but. And B. K. sharma L. E. Armentano, and K. J. Cheng and B. C., H. H., S.! Of various tocopherol compounds by which to live ascorbate and endocrine and function...

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