Former Lecturer in Japanese, University of Florence. It is, however, difficult to establish which districts he traversed and which he may have described from information gathered en route. His account of t… Establishing friendly relations with the great Kublai Khan, they eventually returned to Europe as his ambassadors, carrying letters asking the pope to send Kublai 100 intelligent men “acquainted with the Seven Arts”; they also bore gifts and were asked to bring back oil from the lamp burning at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. These stepping-stones led to Shazhou (“Saciu”) on the borders of China, a place now called Dunhuang. Why is Marco Polo important to history? Why Marco Polo Marine Ltd's (SGX:5LY) Ownership Structure Is Important By Simply Wall St Published July 20, 2018. Polo’s adventures are recounted in his own writings, The Travels, where he describes the peoples, places, and customs of the East, including the fabulous court of the Khan. Marco Polo is important to history, in that he opened up trade and missionary routes from Europe to East India and China. Ibn Battuta. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The family had traded with the Middle East for a long time, acquiring considerable wealth and prestige. The family appears to have been shrewd, alert, and courageous; about 1260 they foresaw a political change in Constantinople (e.g., the overthrow of the Crusaders who had ruled since 1204 by Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1261), liquidated their property there, invested their capital in jewels, and set off for the Volga River, where Berke Khan, sovereign of the western territories in the Mongol Empire, held court at Sarai or Bulgar. No. Email. Polo’s way was paved by the pioneering efforts of his ancestors, especially his father, Niccolò, and his uncle, Maffeo. It is also believed that Marco visited territories to the south (other parts of Afghanistan, Kafiristan in the Hindu Kush, Chitral in what is now Pakistan, and perhaps Kashmir) during this period. Marco Polo’s account in Il milione opened new vistas to the European mind, and, as Western horizons expanded, Polo’s legacy grew as well. Marco Polo was born around 1254 into a wealthy Venetian merchant family, though the actual date and location of his birth are unknown. Marco's mother died when he was young; therefore, young Marco was primarily raised by extended family.\"The merchant families were the movers and shakers of commerce an… Find answers now! Facts About Marco Polo Marco Polo was an Italian merchant adventurer. It is not clear whether they reached the Mongol summer capital of Shangdu (“Ciandu”) directly or after a detour; in any event, sometime in 1275 (1274, according to the research of Japanese scholar Matsuo Otagi) the Polos were again at the Mongol court, presenting the sacred oil from Jerusalem and the papal letters to their patron, Kublai Khan. Marco Polo may be considered important to the Renaissance, as he seemed to embody the humanist ideals in his exploration via East India. Not realizing that the Mongol empire had already fallen by the time of his voyage, Columbus even planned to follow in Polos footsteps by making contact with Kublai Kahns successor. Marco Polo was very famous for his travels and stories he told from Ancient China. From Acre the travelers proceeded to Ayas (“Laiazzo” in Marco’s writings, now Yumurtalik, on the Gulf of İskenderun, also called the Gulf of Alexandretta, in southeastern Turkey). Marco Polo was a merchant and an extremely ambitious for travel Silk Road around 1280 AD. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Marco Polo Bridge Incident, (July 7, 1937), conflict between Chinese and Japanese troops near the Marco Polo Bridge (Chinese: Lugouqiao) outside Beiping (now Beijing), which developed into the warfare between the two countries that was the prelude to the Pacific side of World War II. Activity: World Travelers. 1 Questions & Answers Place. Traveling east as far as Mongol emperor Kublai Khan’s summer residence, Shangdu, they established friendly relations with him before returning to Europe as his ambassadors. The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries, during the age of the great European voyages of discovery and conquest. There the Polos decided not to risk a sea passage to India and beyond but to proceed overland to the Mongol capital. Marco Polo was one of the most important and famous explorers and writers from Europe; however, the details of his early life and person life are hard to discover. Marco Polo was a merchant in Venice before he became the famous explorer we know today. Where is she now? Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Marco Polo studied the Chinese language, and it was not very long before he could speak it. Through it all, Marco Polo marveled at China's cultural customs, great wealth and complex social structure. He was considered very "Brave" because he sailed the Ocean of "Risk" of falling out of Earth. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. An Age of Adventure. His account of his journeys inspired other adventurers, such as the explorer Christopher Columbus, who always carried a copy of Polo's book. Marco Polo’s father, Niccolò, and uncle, Maffeo, continued this legacy. During the early part of 1272, they probably passed through Erzurum, in what is now eastern Turkey, and Tabrīz, in what is now northern Iran, later crossing inhospitable deserts infested with brigands before reaching Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. Returning to Acre, they were given proper credentials, and two friars were assigned to accompany them, though they abandoned the Polos shortly after the expedition resumed. But why the name Marco Polo sheep? Marco Polo’s writings on the places and cultures he witnessed were remarkable and exceptionally accurate – his sharing was valuable! Become a Study.com member to unlock this Kublai Khan sent Marco Polo on fact-finding missions to distant parts of the empire, including visits to Yunnan (and possibly Myanmar [Burma]) and through southeastern China to “Quinsay” (now Hangzhou). They traveled the Silk Road to China where he met the great ruler Kublai Khan. Exploration & Marco Polo As travel technology (e.g. In the vast province of Gansu (called “Tangut” by Marco), an entirely different civilization—mainly Buddhist in religion but partly Chinese in culture—prevailed. Living among the emperor’s dominions, with his father and uncle, as an advisor and emissary for 16 or 17 years, he returned to Venice by way of Hormuz (aboard ship) and Constantinople (overland). Among his acolytes was Christopher Columbus, who carried a well-thumbed copy of the The Travels of Marco Polo on his voyages to the New World. Marco Polo was 17 or 18 when he began his journey from Venice to the farthest reaches of the Mongol empire. Marco Polo Marco Polo was an explorer who traveled from Europe to China and back. Who were her builders and travellers? What is happening with the Marco Polo? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This timeline covers his life and travels. The Age of Discovery: Timeline & Explorers, 6th Grade World History: Enrichment Program, 7th Grade World History: Enrichment Program, 8th Grade World History: Enrichment Program, Developmental World History: Middle School, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, Western Civilization I: Certificate Program, High School World History: Help and Review, Middle School US History: Help and Review, Post-Civil War U.S. History: Help and Review, American History Since 1865: Tutoring Solution, Post-Civil War American History: Homework Help, High School World History: Homeschool Curriculum, Middle School World History Curriculum Resource & Lesson Plans, AP World History Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Prentice Hall America: History of our Nation: Online Textbook Help, Biological and Biomedical However, when they each returned Zheng He’s accomplishments were more lauded and important than Marco Polo’s. Services, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. He was age 15 or 16 when his father and uncle returned to meet him and learned that the pope, Clement IV, had recently died. His father, Niccolo, and his uncle Maffeo were successful jewel merchants who spent much of Marco's childhood in Asia. Writer. For over 3000 years the great Silk Road was the longest land route in the world. Marco Polo (c. 1254-1324) was a Venetian merchant and adventurer who made an extended, twenty-four year (1271-95), journey with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo into central Asia, including seventeen years spent in Mongol-controlled China. He was considered very "Brave" because he sailed the Ocean of "Risk" of falling out of Earth. His account of the Orient provided the western world with its first clear picture of the East’s geography and ethnic customs. The Polos were likely shrewd, alert, and courageous; they traded with the Middle East and acquired considerable wealth and prestige. China: The First Great Divergence. This is the currently selected item. Marco Polo. Omissions? Why Early Globalization Matters. Descending on the northeastern side of the chain, they reached Kashi (“Cascar”) in what is now the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Marco Polo traveling in a caravan, illustration from the. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Marco polo sheep bear the scientific name Ovis ammon polii and are among the 9 argali subspecies. Before reaching Shazhou, the Polos had traveled primarily among Muslim peoples, though they also encountered Nestorian Christians, Buddhists, Manichaeans, and Zoroastrians. Leaving Badakhshān, the Polos proceeded toward the Pamirs, but the route they followed to cross these Central Asian highlands remains uncertain. All rights reserved. A name closely associated with exploration of this time is Marco Polo. Why is Marco Polo so Important? The Polos had been on the road for only a few days when they heard that their friend Teobaldo had been elected pope as Gregory X. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He escorted a Mongol princess, with his father and uncle, by sea to Hormuz, and by land to Khorasan, during his return voyage to Venice. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Marco Polo works as an envoy for Kublai Khan When Marco Polo was about twenty-one Kublai Khan sent him on very important business to a distant part of China. The travelers probably stopped in Suzhou (“Sukchu”; now Jiuquan) and Ganzhou (“Campiciu”; now Zhangye) before entering the Ningxia area. At 17, he left Venice with his father and uncle. He brought back information that had been unknown before his time, and he inspired others to explore as well. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Marco Polo never saw himself as an explorerhe preferred the term wayfarerbut his do-or-die approach to travel helped inspire a whole generation of globetrotting adventurers. Although it is uncertain if the Polos were of the nobility, the matter was of little importance in Venice, a city of republican and mercantile traditions. answer! Niccolò and Maffeo remained in Venice anticipating the election of a new pope, but in 1271, after two years of waiting, they departed with Marco for the Mongol court. Marco Polo changed the world by writing a book about his travels from Venice to the court of Kublai Khan in China. When will we ever see her again? According to his book, "The Travels of Marco Polo," Marco Polo even became an official in Kublai Khan's government, serving as an envoy, governor and member of the Privy Council. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. As travel technology (e.g. Marco Polo was a Venetian explorer known for the book The Travels of Marco Polo, which describes his voyage to and experiences in Asia. 8.1—Exploration & Interconnection. Marco Polo (1254-1324 CE) was a Venetian merchant and explorer who travelled to China and served the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan (l. 1214-1294 CE) between c. 1275 and 1292 CE. This would establish... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Activity: An Age of Adventure. Author of, Marco Polo's travels to Asia (1271–95), immortalized in his. Turning gradually to the northeast, they reached more hospitable lands; Badakhshān (“Balascian”), in Afghanistan, in particular, pleased the travelers. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo (also known as Book of the Marvels of the World and Il Milione, c. 1300), a book that described to Europeans the then mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China in the Yuan Dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan and other Asian … The Polos apparently managed their affairs well at Berke’s court, where they doubled their assets. In Acre (now ʿAkko, Israel) the papal legate, Teobaldo of Piacenza, gave them letters for the Mongol emperor. By this point the Polos were on the main Silk Road, and they probably followed along the oases to the south and east of the Takla Makan Desert—Yarkant (“Yarcan”), Hotan (“Cotan”), Che’erchen (“Ciarcian”), and Lop Nur (Lop Lake). I am going to take a deep dive into Marco Polo Marine Ltd’s (SGX:5LY) most recent ownership structure, not a frequent subject of discussion among individual investors. While in Asia, Marco Polo, his father and his uncle encountered a number of strange sights, and they even achieved some political success. He included information on the culture and religion as well as the geography and government of the regions he visited. cartography, compass, ship-building) and curiosity increased through the first few centuries of the first millennium A.D., there was a surge of exploration throughout Europe for the purposes of trade, enlightenment and missionary work. His father, Niccolo, and uncle, Maffeo, were successful travelers and traders who had set off to Asia just after Polo's birth. The brothers Niccilo and Maffeo Polo left Venice and embarked on their first long sejour abroad when Marco was just a child.After staying in the Venetian qaurter of Constantinople for several years, the brothers realized that the political situation had grown precarious and decided to leave. Marco suggests that they remained there for a year; detained, perhaps, by illness (possibly malaria) that was cured by the benign climate of the district. They next traveled through deserts of “surpassing aridity” toward the Khorasan region in what is now eastern Iran. Introduction. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. Back then thought Earth was flat. Create your account. Hey, enjoy Marco Polo all you want, but I will judge you if you enjoy the character of Marco Polo more than any of the supporting leads. He was among the first Europeans to visit this part of the world and was the first to record in detail the many things he observed there. When political events prevented their return to Venice, they traveled eastward to Bukhara (Bokhara) and ended their journey in 1265, probably at the grand khan’s summer residence, Shangdu (immortalized as Xanadu by English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge). They arrived in the Crimean port Sudak in 1260, and then continued to Surai, located on the Volga river, where they engaged in trading fo… Updates? Marco Polo (1254-1329) has achieved an almost archetypal status as a traveller, and his Travels is one of the first great travel books of Western literature, outside the ancient world. His travels enabled him to … What navigation tools did Marco Polo use? The circumstances into which the world-famous explorer and writer Marco Polo was born were suitably epic. They were first described by Marco Polo in his book The Travels of Marco Polo and since then have been named after him. Marco Polo. Why was Marco Polo so influential? Marco Polo, his uncle, and his father presenting the pope's letter at the court of Kublai Khan, detail of an illuminated manuscript; in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, England. I am going to take a deep dive into Marco Polo Marine Ltd’s most recent ownership structure, not a frequent subject of discussion among individual investors. Marco Polo was very famous for his travels and stories he told from Ancient China. Through his travels through ancient China he met a very famous Leader of a Clan. Why is she so important to Canadian history and Canadians in general? in Xanadu did Kublai Khan the great Mongol leader meet and befriend Marco Polo, and together they invented a new game while trying to pass the … Marco Polo’s account in Il milione opened new vistas to the European mind, and, as Western horizons expanded, Polo’s legacy grew as well. Little is known about Marco’s early years except that he probably grew up in Venice. He was impressed with the empire's paper money, effi… That is only natural because Zheng He was part of a large government operation while Marco Polo was just a merchant unrecognized by the majority in Europe. He was born in Venice. He did the work well and from that time was often employed as an envoy of the Chinese monarch. They are also known as Pamir Argali or Marco Polo’s Argali. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Marco Polo, (born c. 1254, Venice [Italy]—died January 8, 1324, Venice), Venetian merchant and adventurer who traveled from Europe to Asia in 1271–95, remaining in China for 17 of those years, and whose Il milione (“The Million”), known in English as the Travels of Marco Polo, is a classic of travel literature. Marco traveled much of China and the east, and his stories were written into a popular book. The Khan recognised the young man as precociously perceptive and, for the next 17 years, Polo travelled around his vast domain on various important missions for … The wealth of new geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries, during the age of the great European voyages of discovery and conquest. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marco-Polo, Explorers, Pirates and Privateers - Biography of Marco Polo, LiveScience - Marco Polo: Facts, Biography & Travels, Marco Polo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Marco Polo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The three of them embarked on an … Signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers and! With the Middle East for a long time, acquiring considerable wealth and complex social structure history. Accomplishments were more lauded and important than Marco Polo ’ s accomplishments were more lauded and important than Marco studied! 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